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Long hours culture harmful to women

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If you want to keep your female workers healthy, ditch the long hours culture – that’s the message from researchers studying the effects of stress.

Findings indicate that men and women respond very differently to long working hours – with women more likely to adopt unhealthy behaviours such as snacking, smoking and drinking caffeine.

Researcher Dr Daryl O’Connor explained: “Women who work long hours eat more high fat and high sugar snacks, exercise less, drink more caffeine and, if smokers, smoke more than their male colleagues.”

“For men, working longer hours has no negative impact on exercise, caffeine intake or smoking.”

While many women adopt unhealthy behaviours in response to working long hours, researchers believe that, in one respect, working long hours has an equally beneficial effect for both men and women.

“The one clear positive impact of working long hours for both sexes is that alcohol consumption is reduced,” said Dr O’Connor.

In this study, researchers examined the stress caused by minor events, or hassles, both in and outside work such as having an argument with a colleague or friend, a meeting with your boss, giving a presentation at work, missing a deadline or even losing your keys.

Findings show that those who experienced one or more such hassles during the day reported consuming significantly more between-meal snacks than usual but fewer portions of vegetables, not fruit, and a smaller main meal.

Of the different types of stressors, it is mental rather than physical stress that leads people to snack.

Researchers categorised daily hassles into four types: ego-threatening, for example, giving a presentation; interpersonal, for example, an argument; work-related, for example, a meeting with your boss and physical, for example, a severe headache or feeling in danger.

And while ego-threatening, interpersonal and work-related hassles lead people to snack more, physical stressors actually lead people to snack less.

Moreover, under stress, certain types of people are more likely to snack than others.

“Those most at risk of snacking under stress are best described as ‘emotional eaters’,” said Dr O’Connor.

“These individuals have higher levels of vulnerability and tend to turn to food as an escape from self-awareness. In other words, when they feel anxious or emotionally aroused or negative about themselves, they try to avoid these ‘negative’ feelings by turning their attention to food.

“Our findings are disturbing in that they show stress produces harmful changes in diet and leads to unhealthy eating behaviours,” explained Dr O’Connor.

“An overwhelming body of evidence shows the importance of maintaining a balanced diet, including eating a low fat diet and five portions of fruit and vegetables a day, in terms of reducing risk of cardiovascular disease cancer risk.

“Yet our study points to a clear link between stress and a tendency to eat more unhealthy snacks and consume fewer vegetables and less of a balanced main meal.”

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Annie Hayes

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